Consultancy: Gender analysis and Barrier Analysis

Organisation: Food for the Hungry Kenya
Post: Kenya
Deadline: 10/12/2019
Posted: Fri, 11/29/2019 - 15:13

Job Description

 

Terms of reference

 

 

 

 

For

 

 

 

 

Gender analysis and Barrier Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Promoting the use of Livestock Markets to increase the Income of 35,567 Pastoralists in Marsabit county.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Project overview

 

1.1 About the project 

 

Through the project, FH is seeking to increase the household income for 35,567 pastoralists in Northern Kenya by 30%, and to significantly reduce the number below the national poverty line during the three years of project life. This will be achieved by promoting behaviour change, strengthening management of two strategically important livestock markets in Jirime and Moyale, and increasing market vibrancy by linking traders and producers. In addition, the project will promote the passing and adoption of appropriate legislation in Marsabit County and the promotion of a curriculum addressing market utilization, which could impact a further 76,313 indirect beneficiaries (40,363M, 35,950F). The indirect beneficiaries will be pastoralists who could benefit from the activities but live outside the market catchment areas. The pastoralists will have the opportunity to make increased sales in Jirime and Moyale markets at higher, more competitive prices. The practical impact of the increased household income will be the ability to meet key needs including food, school fees, medical expenses and improved housing, pay for veterinary care, improving livestock health and productivity, and therefore resilience.

Deep rooted culture believes that undermine community welfare remain the main factor limiting pastoralists’ active engagement with livestock markets. The project will promote behaviour change towards market utilization by producers through a successful community-based approach.  This will be made possible by tackling the three main cultural reasons why many a pastoralist do not participate in commercial destocking as identified by FH Kenya, PACIDA (2017). These factors are: 1). fear of being mocked or laughed at by community members, 2) drawing pride from possession of large herds even when they are dead, and 3) fear of being cursed by other family members or relatives. The project will sequentially aim to build awareness, facilitate critical reflective dialogue, and explore potential action to improve livestock market utilization by both men, women and the youth. The trainings will be designed in such a way that they are experiential, to encourage new thought and motivate people to change cultural norms that impede the success of livestock marketing.

Women play an important role in livestock production – herding, milking and tending.   However, their subordinate position and unequal gender-power relations within the household and community limits their participation in markets and their control over livestock and income from sales. During the project baseline study, we will seek to identify and address gender-based constraints to women's participation and benefit from livestock marketing activities.  The identified constrains will guide in the contextualization and designing of trainings and training material to enable behavior change officers to address them adequately. In areas like Moyale where religion limits the likelihood that women can actively participate in a training together with their male counter parts, initiatives to have women-only discussion will be explored. In such cases, men will be made to understand that women will need such opportunities so that their views can be put into consideration towards improving community wellbeing.

The project will encourage Livestock Marketing Associations (LMAs) who are responsible for managing the markets to integrate women’s membership and active involvement to ensure women have a voice and play a part in community decision making. FH through training will encourage women to participate in the market by capacity building them on financial literacy and business management, linking them to banks for loans and encouraging women to become livestock traders.

 

1.2 Project rationale   

Pastoral and agro-pastoral livestock production systems are the primary economic enterprises and main economic drivers in Marsabit County. Efficient and sustainable livestock markets can increase income for pastoralists and significantly reduce poverty. This project addresses the challenge of poor utilisation of livestock markets in Marsabit County. Although recent efforts have seen livestock trade improve in parts of the region, there are still numerous limitations that significantly inhibit the ability and willingness of pastoralists to sell their livestock in order to access cash to meet their livelihood needs and increase their resiliency to shocks. The main problems that need to be addressed include: 

  1. Low and inefficient market access and participation by livestock producers. While there has been significant multi-million-pound investment in development of the formal livestock markets in Marsabit in the recent past, apathy exists towards utilisation. Many livestock producers use livestock markets as a last option. In particular, most smallholder pastoralists have a subsistence mind-set, where the commercial value of the livestock is not prioritised and livestock is seen as a symbol of prestige and power. The producers therefore mostly sell their livestock to meet a pressing need. This exposes them to exploitation by brokers and middle men who through informal trade, purchase at very low prices but sell at high profit margins in other markets. Informal markets limit the opportunities for producers to directly negotiate the best price for their livestock with traders.
  2. Poor management of markets by the local community LMA.  Livestock Market Associations continue to play a critical role in the management of livestock markets. However, strengthening their managerial capacity to enhance their accountability to the populations they serve remains a priority. In addition, these associations remain philanthropic, offering their services voluntarily lacking the required level of motivation that can only be developed through legislation. This would enhance their mandate and provide clear avenues for collaboration with the duty bearers in livestock markets management.
  3. The livestock trade is traditionally and primarily dominated by men. This limits the ability of women to engage and participate in markets, in spite of the role they play in livestock production. Enabling women to participate in decision-making processes (e.g. LMAs) and increasing their income by actively engaging them in livestock trade can yield enormous dividends in terms of their economic empowerment, which in turn will contribute to improved health, nutritional and educational outcomes for the whole family.

 

  1. Inadequate legislation. At County level, lack of clear rules and regulations to govern the livestock markets has led to poor and unprofessionally managed markets. This perpetuates the trade imbalance that see poor producers continually obtaining

 

 

Gender and disability

This project is closely aligned with DFID’s “Leave No One Behind” agenda as expressed in the January 10, 2017 Policy Paper. This project is targeting pastoral households that are vulnerable and chronically food insecure. FHK has experience and contextualised knowledge of gender and power dynamics in Marsabit County. It highlights the importance of including both men and women in all processes of community empowerment for any effort to improve the resilience of pastoralist communities and reduce poverty to be successful. The structural and socio-cultural discrimination against women inherent in most pastoralist communities in Marsabit County cause women to experience perpetual socio-economic exclusion. Traditionally, livestock ownership and decision-making has been the preserve of men in Marsabit County. Women have had limited participation in decision- making processes and leadership roles (especially at the community level). Cultural norms perpetuate the subordinate position of women within the community and encourage unequal gender-power relations within the household. The recent DFID project demonstrated that focusing on women in communities where women are marginalised and traditionally excluded yields enormous dividends in terms of women’s empowerment, and health, nutritional and educational outcomes.

Through a quick gender analysis, the project will identify, context- specific cultural and gender-based barriers to women’s active participation in livestock markets. Based on this information, we will design and implement behaviour change activities to transform negative cultural and gender norms concerning women’s participation in markets, as well as build women’s self- esteem and ability to participate in decision-making processes. Overall, the goal is to increase women’s income through their engagement in livestock trade.

2.0       Purpose and Objectives of the Baseline

 

2.1 Assess the gender status in livestock ownership and livestock marketing decision making as described below at the HH level.

 

  1. Information on women and men in terms of their division of labour, roles and responsibilities, access to, and control over, resources, and their relative position in society regarding decision making with particular emphasis on livestock production and marketing.
  2. Social variables such as, culture, age and social class that may affect livestock production and marketing with a specific focus on women.
  3. Specific vulnerabilities of women and men, that limit the participation livestock production and marketing.
  4. Women’s time use and how this affects participation in livestock production and marketing.

 

2.2 Conduct qualitative data collection in order to get a deeper and contextual understanding of gender issues that have implications for planned activities along the following domains of inequality:

  1. Access to and control over resources (including information/knowledge): who has access to livestock markets? who makes decision to participate? how do men and women participate in livestock markets and why? what elements in livestock markets create gender inequalities in access to these markets or in the distribution of benefits? Who has control over income from sales of livestock and by-products and why?
  2. Roles and responsibilities in livestock production and marketing--to what extent are these gendered and why?
  3. Practices and participation--current practices in livestock producing and marketing households and the factors that explain these practices; current participation in livestock marketing arrangements (groups and cooperatives, for example) and to what extent these are gendered, etc.
  4. Laws, institutions and policies that govern livestock marketing and the extent to which they produce gender inequalities in access and benefits.
  5. Beliefs and perceptions about men's and women's participation in livestock markets.
  6. Power and decision-making in livestock producing household

2.3 After the qualitative process, barriers will be identified that affect women participation in livestock production and marketing through a barrier analysis.

 

2.4 Make recommendations on how the project will in future integrate and mainstream gender related issues.

 

NB. Process 2.1 has already been undertaken, the consultant will therefore be required to understand the information already available, conduct process 2.2 and 2.3 and then make programmatic recommendations as highlighted in 2.4.

 

3.0       Methodology

 

The study will adapt qualitative approaches for the gender analysis and a mixture of qualitative and small scale quantitative methodology for the barrier analysis.

 

4.0 Scope of the study

The study will be conducted in Novemeber and Decemeber 2019 in Moyale and Saku subcounties of Marsabit couty.

 

5. 0 Deliverables  

· A detailed inception report containing methodology, tools, key sources of data, and work plan for field work. 

· Presentation of the baseline findings to FH staff and stakeholders for validation 

· A comprehensive narrative baseline report 

· A dash board of all the indicator benchmarks measured through this study 

 

6.0 Roles & Responsibilities  

 

6.1 The role of the consultant 

a) Submission of a comprehensive inception report detailing the study work plan; methodologies and tools 

b) Lead in the data collection process in the field 

c) Analysis of primary information and field data 

d) Preparation of draft study report 

e) Facilitation of final validation workshop 

f) Preparation of a final report

 

6.2 Role of FH Kenya 

 

a) Provide relevant project documents 

b) Participate in the review of the drafted tools and pretesting of study tools 

c) Provide feedback and input to the process of adjusting the baseline study methods and timeframe 

d) Preparation for field visitation 

e) Mobilization of study respondents

f) Organize and provide logistic support

g) Provide supportive supervision to the consultant and the research team throughout the engagement period 

 

7. Duration of the assignment 

 

The assignment will take 16 days commencing fourth week of November:

 

Activity 

Days 

Development of tools

Data collection 

10

Data analysis and report writing 

Validation workshop 

Total 

16 days 

 

8. Consultant/s qualification, skills and experience 

The consultant/s will possess the following minimum skills: 

a) Strong experience in gender analysis and programing

b) Strong experience in people centred and rights-based programming at strategy as well as implementation level. 

c) Strong experience in participatory and inclusive assessment/research methodologies

d) Good understanding of the ASAL context

e)  Excellent analytical, facilitation, communication and report writing skills. 

f) At least a master’s degree in relevant field.

 

9. Application procedure 

Interested consultant/firm should submit an expression of interest that includes: 

1. A capability statement detailing suitability for the assignment, similar assignments done within the past 24 months & references for the same, CVs of the consultant/s who will undertake the study. 

2. Detailed technical proposal on the methodology, tools, approaches, potential limitations and challenges and how they will be addressed. 

3. A detailed financial/budget proposal. 

. An Indicative work plan 

 

 

The submission of interest should be made to: Human Resources and Administration Manager Email address:  hr-fhkenya@fh.org   by 10th December  COB.

NB:  FH Kenya does not solicit for funds during the entire recruitment process and Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.

 

 

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